Category Archives: Powershell

Use Group Based Licensing to Active Office 365 Users

The Story

I got a request to place users into Security Groups for management purposes, The client have already users active but many of those users have left the work place and still have E3 or E1 Licenses which they should not have since this is pricey licenses and backing up users details is the easiest and most cost effective way of handling this.

So, To start (Prerequisites):

The Group based licensing management is a new feature, Was introduced in 2019 and not many people know that it is there however, This feature doesn’t come for free as you know (Since it’s Microsoft) and you must have a license for it or at least have users with E3 licensing model. So the requirements are:

  • – Azure AD Premium P1 or Higher
  • – Office 365 E3 or Higher.
  • – EMS or Higher.

How does it work?

In order for you to get this to work  you need to make sure you have planned from where you want to manage those groups and their licenses, Online? Or On-Premises?

IF Online

If you’re going to do this online, then you need to create a group for each Licensing Model which represents the intended License and its users e.g. Office365-E1 is going to be created as a security group and dedicated to E1 License users.

Office365-E3 will also be created the same way and users of License type E3 will be added to it.

If On-Premises

If you’re going to manage those groups on-premises, Then you must have ADConnect (Azure AD Sync) tool to sync those groups after creating them.

In my case I have created those groups in the following manner:

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After creating those groups, You will need to sync them to Office 365 using ADConnect. To force this to sync immediately fire up Powershell on Azure Connect Server and type

Start-ADSyncSyncCycle -PolicyType delta

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What If I have users already assigned with License?

If you have users already assigned licenses and want to manage them using Group Based licensing then you’re going to have to get a list of all your users with their Licenses information into a CSV file and Import those users to the groups you created base on the license they have.

I created a PowerShell that would match user’s names and based on the license mentioned in the CSV file would add them to the relevant group but first you need to export Users from Office 365.

Export Users and their license from Office 365

First of all we’ll connect to Office 365 MSOL Service using Online Powershell

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Get-MsolUser -All |Where {$_.IsLicensed -eq $true } |Select DisplayName,UsageLocation,@{n=”Licenses Type”;e={$_.Licenses.AccountSKUid}},SignInName,UserPrincipalName,@{n=”ProxyAddresses”;e={$_.ProxyAddresses}}| Export-csv -Path C:ExportlicenseUsage.csv -notype

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So this is how my CSV look right after I exported the users, We need to do some tuning on this CSV file to clean it and get it ready for our PowerShell.

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There are total of 6 columns in this folder, If for whatever reason you wanted to use the ProxyAddress to distinguish users feel free to keep them in the script but in my case I didn’t need them so I deleted the entire column.

So I will keep the following (Remove Spacing between License Type)

  • DisplayName
  • UsageLocation
  • LicenseType
  • SignInName
  • UserPrincipalName

The Value of the License Type is usually formatted like this “TenantName: License” and in order to make this column useful I am going to remove the Tenant name from all the cells.

Find and Replace can easily remove and clean these values for you.

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After cleaning the column, this is how it looks

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This should be useful for us now along with the PowerShell to add the users to their relevant groups.

On Active Directory from an elevated PowerShell

Run PowerShell ISE  from a privileged account and copy + paste this script in ISE,

$ImportedUsers = Import-csv “C:\Users\AD\Desktop\ExportlicenseUsage.csv”

Foreach ($ImportedUser in $ImportedUsers){
$License = $ImportedUser.LicensesType
$E3 = “E3-Office365”
$E1 = “E1-Office365”
$EMS = “EMS-Office365”
$Sam = $ImportedUser.SamAccountName
$ImportedUPN = $ImportedUser.UserPrincipalName

$AllUsers = Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties *
Foreach ($User in $AllUsers)
{
$UPN = $User.UserPrincipalName

if($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -match “EMS”)
{
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $EMS -Members $Sam
Write-Host $($UPN) “User has EMS License and has been added to the Group EMS” -ForegroundColor DarkGreen -BackgroundColor White
}
ElseIf ($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -Contains “STANDARDPACK”)
{
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $E1 -Members $Sam
Write-Host $($UPN) “User has E1 License and has been added to the Group E1” -ForegroundColor black -BackgroundColor green
}
ElseIf ($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -Contains “ENTERPRISEPACK”)
{
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $E3 -Members $Sam
Write-Host $($UPN) “User has E3 License and has been added to the Group E3” -ForegroundColor Blue -BackgroundColor White
}
}
}

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Enabling Group Based License from Azure Portal

After this script finishes, I can open Azure Portal

From Azure Active Directory > Licenses > All Products

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I will choose the license which I want to assign to a group of which I have created on my on-premises AD

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Click on the License (Office 365 E1)  and choose Assign from top menu

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Make sure you select assignment options and customize the license according to the products you want your group members to use then click on Users and Groups and select the relevant Group which you’ve created (In my case it’s E1-Office365)

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Here, The group has been assigned

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Click assign and you should be done

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We will do the same for E3 Users

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NOTE

From now on, Removing any user from this group will revoke their license and any service connected to it, You must be very careful when removing users from this group.

Microsoft has done great job covering this thoroughly and in a great detail including Scripts to be able to do many things like grabbing users who have an inherited license from a group or manually assigned. I am writing down the references if you’re more curious into these.

References:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/licensing-groups-assign

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/licensing-ps-examples

Move Request on Exchange 2019 (During failover) will warn you that it postponed due the move of DB

The Issue:

So while working on a new Exchange Migration project, I have encountered a weird issue where I could see users migration batch status complaining about being stalled due to (Big Funnel).

The error is showing as in the below screenshot and it doesn’t occur instantly after you start the migration of the user but right after it starts.

StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 68.47 MB (71,795,512 bytes) 20

User StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 37.2 MB (39,003,538 bytes) 20

User2 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 14.71 MB (15,421,154 bytes) 20

User3 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 44.2 MB (46,345,009 bytes) 20

User4 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 4.647 MB (4,872,404 bytes) 20

User5 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 14.47 MB (15,169,768 bytes) 20

User6  StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 171 MB (179,280,335 bytes) 20

User7 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 753.4 MB (789,980,880 bytes) 20

User8 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 18.35 MB (19,236,680 bytes) 20

User9 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 205.9 MB (215,951,208 bytes) 20

User10 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 166.2 MB (174,243,238 bytes) 20

User11 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel 13.81 MB (14,481,739 bytes) 20

User12 StalledDueToTarget_BigFunnel

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Error Message

Request ‘domain.com/CompanyUSER/Region1/User1’ (b5dbf3ff-21a1-4ec1-a29c-15b794a17386) failed.

Error code: -2146233088

Connection to the Content Transformation Service has failed.

Context:

——–

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

OpCode: TransferBuffer

DataLength: 31680

——–

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

OperationSide: Target

b5dbf3ff-21a1-4ec1-a29c-15b794a17386 (Primary)

OpCode: TransferBuffer

DataLength: 31680

——–

Operation: IMailbox.ExportMessages

Operation: IMailbox.ExportMessages

OperationSide: Source

b5dbf3ff-21a1-4ec1-a29c-15b794a17386 (Primary)

Flags: SkipItemValidation

PropTags: (null)

——–

>>>> Scheduled WorkItems: EnumerateFolderMessages(P:29792,R:0,S:0,C:14); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:29807,R:0,S:0,C:24,Cnt=3); WriteFolderMessages(P:0,R:0,S:0,C:686); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:30554,R:0,S:2,C:55); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:30612,R:0,S:0,C:36,Cnt=2); WriteFolderMessages(P:3,R:0,S:0,C:301); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:30975,R:0,S:1,C:21); WriteFolderMessages(P:2,R:0,S:0,C:97); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:31094,R:0,S:0,C:18,Cnt=6); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:31279,R:0,S:0,C:19)

————–

The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication service was unable to save changes to request.

Request: ‘9a444721-80e2-4cf8-8c81-8a3afe3dc775’ (bbc2c66e-857e-4ba6-8462-9d66da73d400)

Database: DB01

Error:

The request has been temporarily postponed because a database has failed over. The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication service will attempt to continue processing the request when capacity becomes available on the new server hosting the database.

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Looking at the event ID number 1114 it mentions there seems to be an issue with the request seems there might be an issue with the mailbox being moved.

To dig deeper I am going to search some of the users reporting the same error by using their GUID

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The property “DisplayName” with value “User LastName” is invalid. The value can’t contain leading or trailing whitespace.

Solution: (For a single user)

To resolve the problem, I am going to remove the trailing space in the end of the display name. You can safely use the below Powershell script to solve this problem however, if you don’t trust yourself or you’re not familiar much with Powershell, You can try it on a lab or a single test user for instance.

Get-Mailbox -Identity USER | Foreach { Set-Mailbox -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim() }

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Solution: (For all users)

Get-Mailbox | Foreach { Set-Mailbox -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim() }

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Some relevant errors you might encounter as you’re moving users to Exchange 2019

Error code: -2146233088

Connection to the Content Transformation Service has failed.

Context:

——–

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

OpCode: TransferBuffer

DataLength: 31680

——–

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

Operation: IMapiFxProxy.ProcessRequest

OperationSide: Target

eecb073e-e694-4bbc-8652-54dc05a351ea (Primary)

OpCode: TransferBuffer

DataLength: 31680

——–

Operation: IMailbox.ExportMessages

Operation: IMailbox.ExportMessages

OperationSide: Source

eecb073e-e694-4bbc-8652-54dc05a351ea (Primary)

Flags: SkipItemValidation

PropTags: (null)

——–

>>>> Scheduled WorkItems: EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14014,R:0,S:0,C:13); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14029,R:0,S:0,C:15,Cnt=2); WriteFolderMessages(P:1,R:0,S:0,C:132); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14192,R:0,S:0,C:17); WriteFolderMessages(P:1,R:0,S:0,C:48); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14259,R:0,S:0,C:12,Cnt=4); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14320,R:0,S:1,C:15); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14337,R:0,S:0,C:20); WriteFolderMessages(P:2,R:0,S:0,C:126); EnumerateFolderMessages(P:14485,R:0,S:0,C:30)

Deleting Old Skype for Business or Lync server from ADSI

The story

I had a project few weeks ago where my client wanted to install Skype for Business 2019 but had installed Lync before and removed the server without doing proper decommissioning which kept dirty records in AD database and had to be removed manually in order to make a new clean installation of Skype for Business 2019

To do so:

There are two days of doing so, One is using ADSIEdit and ADUC to remove Computer Objects and Users related attributes and Security Groups.

I normally would prefer PowerShell but since we can demonstrate both ways for people who like to work with GUI

Starting with GUI

Removing Legacy Lync server from the AD Schema

Prerequisites

  1. Using a domain or enterprise admin
  2. Access to the ADSIEdit.

Goal of removing Legacy Lync server from your AD environment.

  1. Preparing AD schema and domain for a new deployment after you improperly deleted Lync Servers without uninstalling them.
  2. Cleaning Users’ Lync related attributes for the new deployment.

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Step#1: Remove permissions

This step removes the original Lync permissions from the active director.

  1. Open Active Directory Users and Computers
  2. Right click on your top level domain being cleaned and select Properties
  3. From the Properties windows, select the Security tab.
  4. Remove all security users titled RTC*
    These are usually
    – RTCUniversalServerReadOnlyGroup
    – RTCUniversalUserReadOnlyGroup
    – RTCUniversalUniversalServices
    – RTCUniversalUserAdmins

From <http://blog.armgasys.com/?p=320>

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  1. Repeat the same steps for each of the following AD Folders and

    OUs
    NOTE: Not all RTC permissions will exist in each AD Folder or OU, but these three OUs do:
    – Domain Controllers
    – System
    – Users

Domain Controllers

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Systems

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Users

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Step#3: Additional AD cleanup

  1. Open Active Directory Users and Computers
  2. Drill down as follows
    [Your Domain] \ Program Data \ Distributed \ KeyMan
  3. Delete LyncCertificates
    NOTE: This may not exist in all scenarios.
  4. Drill down as follows
    [Your Domain] Users
  5. Delete all RTC* and CS* users created by Lync
    I.E. CSAdministrator, CSHelpDesk, RTCComponentUniversalServices, Etc.

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Deleting users from the User OU

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Deleting CS Users

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Step#4: Cleanup existing users

This steps resets Lync attributes for any domain users and contacts.

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The Second way: Using PowerShell

get-aduser -filter {msRTCSIP-PrimaryUserAddress -like “*”}|set-aduser -clear msRTCSIP-PrimaryUserAddress,msRTCSIP-PrimaryHomeServer,msRTCSIP-UserEnabled,msRTCSIP-OptionFlags,msRTCSIP-UserPolicies, msRTCSIP-DeploymentLocator, msRTCSIP-FederationEnabled, msRTCSIP-InternetAccessEnabled

Result:

Users attribute are clean and AD has nothing left over of Previous installation of Lync or Skype for Business .

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Powershell script to audit users who authenticated against DC servers

The story:

I have got a request from a client asking to find out which server(s) is using which domain admin or a highly privileged account as a service.

To find this I already wrote a powershell script that does this, Search the non standard/(Domain only users) and show the services and name of the servers where those accounts are configured on utilizing Remote powershell to do so and the use of a Domain Admin user.

You can refer to this link to see this article by clicking here

Creating the script process:

The same client wanted to also know which of those accounts did authenticate and wanted to know from which server/Computer did the request originate from and to which DC did it go.

I have started thinking of the process of doing so by again utilizing remote PowerShell to check against certain security events on AD to check which user among the Domain admin members did authenticate.

After sometime and with the help of some forums I managed to get script ready which looks in all Domain Controllers for users that are members of the Domain Admin groups who triggered an event ID 4624 and from which Computer did this request came from.

The Script :

# Get domain admin user list
$DomainAdminList = Get-ADGroupMember -Identity 'Domain Admins'
# Get all Domain Controller names
$DomainControllers = Get-ADDomainController -Filter * | Sort-Object HostName
# EventID
$EventID = '4624'
#
# Get only last 24hrs
$Date = (Get-Date).AddDays(-3)
# Limit log event search for testing as this will take a LONG time on most domains
# For normal running, this will have to be set to zero
$MaxEvent = 100

# Loop through Dcs
$DALogEvents = $DomainControllers | ForEach-Object {
    $CurDC = $_.HostName
    Write-Host "`nSearching $CurDC logs..."
    Get-WinEvent  -ComputerName $CurDC -FilterHashtable @{Logname='Security';ID=$EventID;StartTime = $Date} -MaxEvents $MaxEvent |`
    Where-Object { $_.Properties[5].Value -in $DomainAdminList.SamAccountName } |`
    ForEach-Object {
        [pscustomobject]@{SourceIP = $_.Properties[18].Value; SamAccountName = $_.Properties[5].Value;Time = $_.TimeCreated;LogonEventLocation = $CurDC}
    }
}
$DALogEvents

How to run:

The Script must be run on DC with a privileged account in order to get the write results, The default time interval is set to 3 days but you can choose to increase that.

You can also change the default group where you want to search for members by changing Domain Admin groups to something else.

Screenshot of the result

Slow Migration – Office 365

The story:

In office 365 when you’re working on Exchange 2010,2013, 2016 or 2019 in a hybrid environment things might look easy but in a big enterprises where Internet security is something being taken into account very seriously. It might cause many issues that you don’t expect at all.

One of my clients whom I was doing Exchange Migration for had an issue with the Migration. The error was as follows:

Error occurs after Office 365 Exchange online connects to Exchange on-premises 2010 mailbox server

Error in Office 365

         : 20.

                                           27.04.2016 08:03:17 [DB3PR05MB0778] Transient error DataExportTransientExcep

                                           tion has occurred. The system will retry (2/1280).

                                           27.04.2016 08:04:53 [DB3PR05MB0778] The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replicati

                                           on service ‘DB3PR05MB0778.eurprd05.prod.outlook.com’ (15.1.466.25 caps:03FFF

                                           F) is examining the request.

                                           27.04.2016 08:04:55 [DB3PR05MB0778] Connected to target mailbox ‘lcwonline.o

                                           nmicrosoft.com\ec96e315-1059-4710-b358-1c4b42f3edeb (Primary)’, database ‘EU

                                           RPR05DG049-db131′, Mailbox server ‘DB3PR05MB0778.eurprd05.prod.outlook.com’

                                           Version 15.1 (Build 466.0).RequestExpiryTimestamp                   : 03.04.2116 07:42:38

ObjectState                              : New

Troubleshooting:

To troubleshoot issues, You need to put so many things into account! The architecture of the infrastructure of where you are doing the project is very important and the need of knowing how things are working matters.

Things that could always come in mind and handy are what you will need to start your troubleshooting:

– Bandwidth Limitations or Performance:

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn592150(v=exchg.150).aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj200581(v=exchg.150).aspx

– Exchange Configuration (MRS)

To troubleshoot the MRs, You need to know what kind of error you’re getting and to see this you can use the following powershell after you connect to Office 365 powershell.

Get-MoveRequest {email} | Get-MoveRequestStatistics -Diagnostic -IncludeReport | Export-Clixml c:\logfile.xml

The resultant report will reveal the error and shows you where is the exact culprit.

– Disk Latency
– Firewall Configuration (IPS/IDS)

From Exchange 2016 to 2019 or 2013 to 2016 The transient error might be related to MRSProxy or at least this is the case with me 90% of the time. To resolve this issue you will need to change the MRSProxy values on the target server and depending on the error might also be the Source server too.

SOLUTION:

===========

1. Some instability was detected in communications as well as saturation by the size of the link.
2. The procedure to increase the timeout for the service through the file MRSProxy

File: MsExchangeMailboxReplication.exe.config

Object / line: DataImportTimeout.

New Value: 00:10:00

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New Configuration

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HOW TO GET ALL DOMAIN JOINED SERVER SERVICES THAT USING A UNIQUE OR DOMAIN USER

The Story (Finding Domain Joined Servers Services users)

If you’re wondering which of your servers are using domain joined account or a non regular account like network service or system. You will need to go through every server’s service console and check that one by one but thanks to PowerShell this job was made like a piece of cake.

Requirement

The requirement to run this script is a domain admin account since the PowerShell will require access to other servers using Remote PowerShell using Invoke command and run a Get-WMIObject script to find out those details. So in short I will write the required things for this to work

1- Logged in to Active Directory (In order for AD PowerShell module to run and find computers).

2- Domain admin account (To run the remote PowerShell on other servers and get service details)

3- Firewall for domain joined computers is open (To allow remote PowerShell to work) or have remote PowerShell enabled via GPO.

The Script will also show you the offline (inaccessible servers) and will state those servers as down as you can see in the screenshot below.

The script will also prompt you for a path to save the output. You can enter something like C:\Services.csv  as soon as you type the file path and extension it’ll be opened using Notepad.

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#Check servers down and get services from the responsive servers

$Computers = Get-ADComputer -Filter { OperatingSystem -Like ‘*Windows Server*’}

$Input = ForEach ($computer in $computers){

$comp = $Computer.DNSHostName

$dist = $Computer.DistinguishedName

if (Test-Connection -Computername $comp -count 2 -Quiet )

{

Invoke-Command -ComputerName $comp -ScriptBlock {Get-WmiObject win32_service | where {$_.StartName -notlike “*LocalSystem*” -and $_.StartName -notlike “*LocalService*” -and $_.StartName -notlike “*NetworkService*” -and $_.StartName -notlike “*System*”} | select DisplayName,StartName,State }}

else{ Write-host $comp is down -foregroundColor red -BackGroundColor black

}

}

$Output = Read-Host “Enter File path and Name to save output to”

Out-File -FilePath $Output -InputObject $Input -Encoding ascii

Notepad $Output


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Windows 10 powershell’s Linux sudo apt-get install like CMDlet with Chocolately app

The Story

Windows 10 has arrived finally and with it came lot of new features, and one of my favorite new features is that you can finally install applications through powershell just like Linux OS’s terminal window command (apt-get install).

Although the command is still pretty new and lack many repositories where you can find and install applications from.

There’s already some people who are working on adding sources of applications which you can test initially before Microsoft asks product companies to start making their own repositories so Powershell can trust these sites and applications.

One of the sites that are working on providing Windows 10 with repositories is https://chocolatey.org/ which provides hundreds of softwares that can be installed through PS.

To install Chocolately repository simply do the following

Open powershell as an administrator and paste the following cmdlet

@powershell -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command “iex ((new-object net.webclient).DownloadString(‘https://chocolatey.org/install.ps1’))” && SET PATH=%PATH%;%ALLUSERSPROFILE%\chocolatey\bin

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Then this

iex ((new-object net.webclient).DownloadString(‘https://chocolatey.org/install.ps1’))

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From

https://chocolatey.org/

As soon as you have installed chocolately, you will get a new huge list of applications that can be installed with a very simple and short cmdlet as in the below screenshots.

The good things about these cmdlets is it can be used to deploy an app for a huge number of clients by simply running the script through GPO or batch file.

I am going to install VLC and Google drive on my computer using these cmdlet …

Find-Package

Find-package -Name VLC

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Install-package

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Checking if the app is really installed or not?

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——————————————

Find and install google drive package

Downloading

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Installing

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If an application doesn’t install, how to troubleshoot it?

If for instance you were trying to install a package or app and that doesn’t work or get stuck then you can navigate to the Chocolately directory and delete any package that you tried to install but were suspended for any reason.

c:\Chocolately\lib\

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You can simply delete the whole directory or the file that ends with extension .nupkg and try again to install…

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Useful Powershell script to resolve the X500 address

In migration, Powershell can be a very crucial tool to achieve success and finalize projects within deadline or even fix issues.

During the time of working with Exchange we had lots of issues with users not able to send an email to their migrated colleagues due to some issues with contacts which was caused by the Legacy Exchange DN not being migrated with the user or lost due to some wrong deletion.

Once users try to send an email to that particular user with the missing Legacy Exchange DN. The receiving Exchange server will result an error and send it to the user as NDR message explaining to them that the error is due to not finding the particular address.

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The solution to this particular problem is very simple especially if it’s couple of users however to resolve the address you’ll need to google and understand the language that Exchange server users to match the original used address in the missing user’s attributes.

The below script would work accordingly with whatever situation that faced me and it became very handy to me.

How to use:

1- Copy the script to a notepad and save as convert.ps1 on Desktop

2- Run script and try to type in powershell convert-X500 then hit enter.

3- Copy and paste the address you got from the error message above.

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Once you copy and paste hit enter and you’ll get the final result

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Note: Make sure you remove the @domain.local in the end

Function Convert-X500{ # Define the Legacy Exchange DN here

Write-Host “”Enter your X500 Address here…”” -ForegroundColor Green -BackgroundColor Black

$X500Source = read-host

# Converts the various strings to the proper syntax

$X500 = $X500Source.Replace(“_”, “/”)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“+20″, ” “)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“IMCEAEX-“, “”)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“+28”, “(“)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“+29”, “)”)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“+2E”, “.”)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“+5F”, “_”)

$X500 = $X500.Replace(“@YourDC.localHere“, “”)

Write-Host X500:$X500}

Preparing, Migrating users and Handling contacts between two forests in Microsoft Exchange Cross Forest migration

This article presumes that you have setup all the initial steps for the Cross Forest migration to work:

– Configure DNS resolution and trust between two AD forests.

– Create and configure Send connector between Source.com and Target.com

– Create and configure Availability service between Source.com and Target.com

– Configure Source.com as accepted domain in blue.com

– Install and configure ADMT server at the target domain Target.com

– Install and configure Password Encryption Server (PES) on the source domain Source.com

– Configure MRSProxy on Source and Target CAS Servers (Enabling MRSProxy, Increase limits..etc.).

– Configured Public Certificates between both CAS Servers or installed self signed CA certs.

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In order for two Cross forest Exchange users to send an E-mail to one another before or during Cross forest migration; Each forest have to have the other forest’s users as external contacts on their Exchange environment to ease the finding of any particular user in that other organization and avoid X500 errors after the migration.

During the migration this process is critical and very important to be up to date in order to not mess users included in distribution groups before, during and after user migration from source to target forests.

For Cross forest user migration, User has to be prepared via Microsoft’s own prepare-moverequest Powershell which is included in the $Exscript directory that prepares the target user’s attributes (Before or after ADMT copy) for the migration using the Powershell script new-moverequest.

However, before that user is migrated and before doing the prepare move request the user must have their user object mail user enabled in order to get all the proper attributes for the move request to work which means the Contact has to either be deleted or lose the SMTP which is goin to be enabled on the mail enabled user.

For this process and in a big environment a tool, 3rd party or a script must be used to hasten the migration of users otherwise it would take ages and would be a very problematic process.

User Creation:

Using ADMT then Prepare-Moverequest script

Starting with the creation of target user using ADMT or by Prepare-MoveRequest Script, If ADMT is used prior to PrepareMoveRequest. The target user will have exchange attributes migrated and mail-user enabled by default but due to some incomplete or incorrect attributes the user will most probably have a corrupted mail user object that needs to be disabled and re-enabled with the proper mail address.

Using Prepare-MoveRequest before ADMT

In the case of using Prepare-Moverequest the user will be created in the target forest properly without any issue but will not have their SIDHistory copied so after creation of the user account ADMT must be used to copy user’s SIDHistory with Exchange attributes excluded.

Note:

– This method has an advantage over using ADMT first, User don’t have to create a new outlook profile in order to use their target mailbox after migration.

– You don’t have to mailenable user.

Mail Enabling User:

The first step for the migration to work is to Mail enable user in the target forest. Assuming you have a user called Tim@source.com the user gets his AD Object copied to the target forest with ADMT and user gets his UPN changed from tim@source.com to tim@target.localautomatically, still user will get his SIDhistory and the Groups he’s in if groups are migrated prior to that however, in some rare cases that I have seen while doing this kind of project the SIDHistory might not get copied and you might not notice that unless you take a very close look at the log that ADMT is generating for you, In the script I am attaching below and prior to preparing the user for migration I added a script to bulk check user list for SIDHistory. The script below will disable mailuser that’s migrated with ADMT and show you their SIDHistory attribute in order to double check before you migrate their mailbox.

$Users = import-csv -path “C:\List\List1.csv”

foreach ($User in $Users)

{

$Identity = $User.Alias

$UIdentity = $User.Sam

$Mail = $User.Proxy

$NProxy = $User.NewProxy

#Before Migration, Show if user has SIDHistory or Not, If not don’t migrate User

$UserSID = dsquery * -filter “&(objectcategory=user)(samaccountname=$Identity)” -attr objectsid sIDHistory

Write-host User $User.Alias has $UserSID -ForegroundColor Green -BackgroundColor Black

The CSV file format for this powershell should be as following, I will explain why in detail below

Alias,Proxy,NewProxy,NewIdentity

Alias,MailAddress@domain.com,MailAddress@domain.local,NewIdentity

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In order for the Prepare-Moverequest to work we will have to MailUser enable this user by using the following script

Enable-Mailuser –Identity SamAccountName –ExternalAddress PrimarySMTPAddress

Enable-Mailuser –Identity Tim –ExternalAddresstim@domain.com

In this case user will be ready for the prepare moverequest script to work and get his source Exchange attributes to be copied to the target one.

Prepare-MoveRequest for Single mailbox:

The Prepare-Moverequest powershell is pretty easy to use for a single user and all you need is to enter target and Remote credentials in a variable to use it with the command.

Once you use the script it’ll copy the source user and their Exchange attributes including Proxy Addresses, it’ll convert the LegacyExchangeDN into X500 address in the target user’s mailbox object so users in the source forest wont get any cache issue reaching to the migrated user and will set other attributes like Displayname, MailNickName..etc like in the screenshot below.

Script is as the following

$TargetCredentials = Get-Credential

$RemoteCredentials = Get-Credential

.\Prepare-MoveRequest.Ps1 -Identity UPN@targetdomain.com -RemoteForestDomainController “SourceDCHostname.SourceDC.local” -RemoteForestCredential $RemoteCredentials -LocalForestDomainController “TargetDCHostname.TargetDC.local” -LocalForestCredential $TargetCredentials -TargetMailUserOU “OU=DestinationOU,DC=TargetDC,DC=local” -UseLocalObject -OverwriteLocalObject –Verbose

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Prepare-MoveRequest for Bulk mailboxes:

For bulk users the script is simpler but for it to work you’ll need to prepare a CSV file that meets the requirements of the powershell script.

Bulk Users Script:

cd $exscripts

Write-Host “Starting to Prepare-MoveRequest for users in your CSV List….” -ForegroundColor Green -BackgroundColor Black

Import-Csv C:\Identity\Identity_1.csv | .\Prepare-MoveRequest.ps1 -RemoteForestDomainController “SourceDCHost.SourceDC.local” -RemoteForestCredential $RemoteCredentials -UseLocalObject -OverwriteLocalObject –Verbose

CSV Example:

Alias,Proxy,NewProxy,NewIdentity

Alias,MailAddress@domain.com,MailAddress@domain.local,NewIdentity

image

–Moving Users

Moving Single Mailbox:

After preparing the Move request, The only thing left to do is to move users. This process is pretty easy and only one script line is used.

[PS] C:\Exchange 2010\scripts>New-MoveRequest -Identity “outlook.test@SourceSMTPDomain.com” -RemoteHostName “webmail.SourceOwaUrl.com” -Remote -RemoteCredential $RemoteCredentials -TargetDatabase DestinationDB1 –TargetDeliveryDomain SourceSMTPAcceptedDomain.com

image

Moving Multiple Mailboxes:

Import-Csv C:\Identity\Identity_15.csv | New-MoveRequest -RemoteHostName “webmail.calikenerji.com” -Remote -RemoteCredential $RemoteCredentials -TargetDatabase CEDB12 -TargetDeliveryDomain calikenerji.com

CSV Example:

Identity

Outlook.user@SourceSMTPDomain.com

Outlook.user2@SourceSMTPDomain.com

Outlook.user3@SourceSMTPDomain.com

image

Once the list is ready and you run the powershell script the target CAS server would connect to the source CAS and start migration as in the following screenshot.

image

Once users migration is finished, On the source forest user will be converted to MailUser so non-migrated users in the source forest will still be able to send emails to this user however, The Groups on target forest must be manually maintained and updated with users that are being migrated.

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– Contacts Issue

In the target forest those two migrated users were already contacts there prior to migrating them and thus Target forest users who have sent those two users email have the LegacyExchangeDN Address of those contacts cached in their Outlook in X500 format which will create an issue if those contacts are deleted without exporting their LegacyExchangeDN and add it to the migrated users’s ProxyAddress Attributes.

Prior to deleting those contacts, From the Target forest I have exported their info to CSV with the following attributes.

Name, Alias, PrimarySMTPAddress and LegacyExchangeDN Attribute using the following powershell script

Get-MailContact -result unlimited | where {$_.PrimarySmtpAddress -like*@TargetSMTPDomain.com} | select Name,Alias,Primarysmtpaddress,legacyExchangeDN | Export-Csv c:\TargetContacts.csv -notypeinfo -encoding utf8

The PowerShell will export contacts in the following format and in order to import them you’ll need to bulk edit the file using Notepad or Notepad++

image

In notepad replace “/o= with X500:/o=

image

and Replace all “ with nothing

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After you save the file in the target forest, Only in the condition of migrating Source users to the target forest use the following script to Import those users’ LegacyExchangeDN as X500 to their migrated Mailbox objects.

Import-CSV “C:\TargetContacts.csv” | foreach{Set-Mailbox -identity $_.Name -EmailAddresses @{add=$_.LegacyExchangeDN}}

Hope this helps and if you have any questions in mind please don’t hesitate to contact me at info@moh10ly.com or call me 320-200-9663.

Mohammed JH

Get all mailbox Exchange Servers IP address remotely

Sometimes while we do Exchange projects in big environments where there more than 10 or 15 servers we need to quickly get a particular server’s hostname or IP.

I created a simple PowerShell script that does the work for you

#Get all mailbox Exchange Servers IP address remotely

#Import Exchange Management Shell if ran from PowerShell

Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.Exchange.Management.PowerShell.SnapIn

# Find Mailbox Server Roles

$Servers = Get-ExchangeServer | Where-Object {$_.Serverrole -eq “mailbox”}

# Print Servername and IP

foreach ($Server in $Servers) {Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration -Filter IPEnabled=TRUE -ComputerName $Server | Select-Object -Property IPAddress,PsComputerName,Name}

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